Monarch Butterflies – Santa Cruz, CA

Every year during winter time, the Monarch butterflies migrate from Northern areas and congregate around the exact same branches of Eucalyptus trees near Natural Bridges Beach in Santa Cruz, CA.

The Monarches are one of the longest-lived butterfly species, with some living up to 12 months.

The fact that they live for about a year means that the butterflies that come back next year won’t be the same individuals. They will be their descendants, but will still gather around the same branches, on the same trees, on the same beach in Santa Cruz.

Climbing Half Dome

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From Half Dome, one can see the entire Yosemite Valley

I have been to Yosemite some 30 times and climbed Half Dome a dozen times since 1994. I have mountaineering experience and the information in this post is correct to my knowledge, but it is for you to use at your own risk. If you are planning to go there and have questions, feel free to contact me by leaving a comment below.

While in Yosemite, please:

  • Do not feed animals (including cute ones)
  • Be respectful to nature and others (don’t walk in loud large groups)
  • Stay on marked trails unless you know what you are doing
  • Leave it cleaner than you found it

Climbing Half Dome in one day is a very challenging and rewarding experience. There are amazing waterfalls along the way, the thrill of climbing the Half Dome boulder, and magnificent view of the entire Yosemite Valley from the top. For most people, it is the biggest hiking/climbing accomplishment to experience and there is some pain and suffering involved.

It is not technical at all and doesn’t require previous experience or specialized equipment. Don’t “just decide” to climb Half Dome after arriving to Yosemite. Without basic preparation and good physical conditioning, a climb of Half Dome is more painful than rewarding.

When to go?

For most people, a Half Dome climb will happen from late Spring to early Fall. You want to check if the route is snow free and that the cables are up (they are usually installed after snow melts in May and removed in early in Oct). In the 2010 season, the park service implemented a requirement for an advance climbing permit.

The gateway for information about park closures, permits, and official information can be found at the National Park Service website.

Planning the climb

Unless you are in reasonable physical condition, don’t plan to climb Half Dome all the way to the top. If you have never been to Yosemite before, I also do not recommend it (you will have to rush through some of the most amazing places in the planet). It is a long and strenuous hike and there are several more reasonable goals along the way (Top of Nevada or Vernal Falls, for example).

The ideal group size for hiking/climbing is 3-6 people. Unless you know what you are doing, don’t do this alone. If you have a larger group, consider breaking it in smaller groups. Once you start, stay always in contact with your group.

Half Dome is usually done in one long day. The total round-trip distance is 14-16 miles (depending on whether you take Mist or John Muir trail). The top of Half Dome sits at 8,842 ft with total elevation gain of 4,800 ft from the Yosemite Valley floor.

To get to the trail head, you need to walk from the Curry Village day parking lot or take the shuttle. I recommend staying at Camp Curry and either walking or taking the very first shuttle of the day. You want to start from the trail head (Happy Isles) preferably before 7AM and never after 8:30AM or so.

For an average well prepared small group doing it for the first time, it will be a 12-hour journey (my personal range has been 8-12 hours). You will be sore, tired and your knees will hurt at the end of the day.

Dress up and load the Backpack

This is not a casual hike. So do not ignore the recommendation in this section.

– Start with good hiking shoes. Make sure they are sturdy enough, have been broken in. . It is possible to do it with good cross-training shoes, but tennis shoes or sandals are just not appropriate.

– You will need at the very least a full gallon of water and there is no potable water available for most of the way. My recommendation is to bring 4 1-litter bottles and reload them at the bottom of Vernal Falls both ways. I carry 6 liters.

– It is usually very hot during the day. Dress in layers and bring lightweight fleece or wind breaker tops and bottoms in your pack. Wear a hat and plenty of sunblock. The sun will be on your back most of the time.

– Bring food for the day. Don’t carry more weight than necessary. Nuts, bars, fruits, cheese, jerky are common choices.

– Carry a flashlight, you might be hiking in the dark at the end of the day. If you don’t like to get wet, make sure your wind breaker has a hood and is water-resistant (for Misty Trail).

– Bring a pair of gloves for the cables. Gardening gloves will work.

– If you are in a group with me, I will be carrying extra water, a trail map, a first-aid kit, space blanket, emergency water purification tablets.

The Climb – Happy Isles to Top of Nevada

Start from the Happy Isles trail head as early as reasonable (preferably before 7AM). Take group pictures in front of the sign with the distances to several destinations. We will be starting on the John Muir trail, which extends over Sierra Nevada all the way to Mt. Whitney.

As you start the long hike, make sure your boots are comfortable. The right time to make adjustments is before, not after, you develop blisters.

After about half hour, you will arrive at a footbridge. It is your first glimpse of Vernal Falls. Drink some water from the fountain and reload your bottles. This is also the last full-service bathroom.

Vernal Falls from footbridge

Continue on the trail and you will hit a fork. John Muir Trail continues to the right and Misty trail breaks to the left. You could reach Half Dome either way, but we will turn left and take Misty Trail (it is faster, shorter, more scenic). You will be climbing rocky steps next to the falls (if it is early summer, you will get wet).

Vernal Falls (early summer)

About 1 hour from start, you will be arriving at the top of Vernal Falls (the little dots on the photo above). Take a short break and appreciate the view. There is a composting bathroom at the Top of Vernal.

Leaving Top of Vernal Falls, cross the foot bridge and take the trail towards Nevada Falls. 15 minutes later, you get a good view of Nevada Falls to the right of the trail.

About 2 hours from start, you will be arriving at the top of Nevada Falls. Take a break. There is a composting bathroom (there are no other easy bathrooms above this one). We will save a visit to the waterfalls (quarter-mile to the right) for the way back.

If it took much more than 2 hours or you feel tired, make the Top of Nevada Falls your destination for the day. This is about 2/5 of the total climb. Turn left towards Half Dome.

The Climb – Top of Nevada to the Treeline

Shortly above Nevada Falls, you will be walking in mostly flat terrain for a while. That is Little Yosemite Valley (there is a campground, which allows for a two-day climb of Half Dome).

The trail starts to climb again through the forest. Enjoy the shade, as most of the last part of the climb will be exposed to the sun. This section of the climb is less visually dramatic, there are no waterfalls and big boulders.

About 4 hours after the start, you will reach the treeline and have the first dramatic view of Half Dome. Notice the dark line going up the boulder, you will be shortly climbing that line.

If it took much more than 4 hours to get here, it is already mid-afternoon, or you feel extremely tired, consider making this you return point.

The Climb – Final stretch: Quarter Dome and the Cables

Shortly after crossing the tree line, you will reach what some call the “quarter dome”. It is a long section of steep rock steps. It might be useful to wear gloves so you can use your hands for balance.

Over and above the steps, you will get a closer view of Half Dome and reach the beginning of the cables. Take a break. If it is late or you are afraid of heights, consider making this your point of return.

The last section of the climb is done walking on the granite boulder slope with the help of a pair of cables working as hand rails. Do not climb if there are storm clouds around you and there is risk of lightning strikes.

This may be psychologically challenging (specially on the way down), but it is not particularly difficult or dangerous. I enjoy the view, but if you are not comfortable with heights, just focus your attention to the cables and your steps.

The biggest problem you may find is traffic congestion. It is not uncommon for hikers to get stuck along the way. Be prepared to hang to the cables for up to 45 minutes waiting for the line of climbers to move.

Ok, you’ve made it. Now is time to descend back.

From the top of Half Dome you get amazing views of the Valley and dramatic vertical drops. Enjoy your accomplishment and rest for a while before starting the descend.

Most climbing injuries happen on the way down, so use caution. Adjust your boots (you want them to be snug to keep your toes from jamming). If it took you about 6 hours to reach the top, it will probably take about 4 hours down.

When you reach the bathrooms at the top of Nevada Falls, if you have time and energy, the waterfalls (1/4 mile) are well worth a visit.

From top of Nevada, there are two alternative routes. The first alternative is to return the same way up (down from the bathrooms to Vernal Falls and Misty Trail). This is my strong preference and recommendation.

The alternative is to cross the bridge at the top of Nevada Falls and go down through John Muir trail. This adds about one mile to the journey, but the descend is more gradual. The reason why some people will recommend that is that by them your knees will be hurting and the gradual slope would be gentler. I think it is just extending the pain and suffering.

Your choice.

Congratulations! You have climbed Half Dome. Hopefully, you made it to Happy Isles before sunset and before the last shuttle bus. If not, you have another mile to walk in the dark and restaurants will be closed by the time to get back to camp.

Paragliding in California

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Today: visited Ed Levin Park and watch some paragliders; check out the classes at Airtime.

I’ve been interested in trying Paragliding. I have done skydiving before (about 10 jumps logged). I’ll be updating this post as plans materialize over the summer. Leave a comment below if you think you would be interested in joining.

Met Radek late in June (he is the friend who is introducing me to Paragliding). He lent me some videos, showed me his gear, and answered to my questions about instruction, equipment, places to learn and practice in the Bay Area.

It does happen that the best place in the SF Bay Area to start is just a couple of miles from my place (Levin Park in Milpitas).

I am watching “Riding the Winds”, an inspiring video taken in the Alps.

If you have interest in joining, let me know.

Visiting Iguaçú Falls – Brazil (May 2010)

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Panoramic View of Iguaçú Falls

I was born in Brazil but had not visited Cataratas do Iguaçú (a.k.a Iguassu Falls, Iguazu Falls) until this past weekend. Here are some photos and some information that might be useful if you plan to make the trip there.

To visit the falls, your gateway city is Foz do Iguaçú (on the Brazilian side) or Puerto Iguazu (on the Argentinian side). A visit to the area is a 2-3 day affair. You can get to Foz do Iguaçú through São Paulo (1.5h flight).

The Iguaçú (big water in the native Tupi Guarani language) River runs through the southern state of Paraná and forms the falls. It then joins the larger Paraná River (which feeds the Itaipú hydroelectric plant) to form the natural borders between Brazil, Argentina and Paraguay.

The Falls were declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site in 1984 and is short-listed as a candidate to be one of the New7Wonders of Nature (you can help to elect it by voting at They are within National Parks on both the Brazilian and Argentinian sides.

Quati - they are everywhere

Most of the falls are on the Argentinian side, so you get the best panoramic views of the majestic falls from Brazil. Bring a light raincoat or buy a plastic one at the entrance. You will get wet.

The admission to the Brazilian side is R$22 (about US$12 as of Jun/2010) and the walk along the main trail 0.8 miles can be done in a bit more than 1 hour and the entire visit won’t take more than three hours. You can take a van from the hotel, get to the park on a taxi or drive yourself.

There are optional tours (bird park, jeep safari), but I have not done them.

Vista Point on the Brazilian side

Visiting the Argentinian side is an all-day endeavor, with a good amount of walking (some 5 miles total – my 76-year-old father and 70-year-old mother were able to do it fine). While the panoramic views are less magnificent than from the Brazilian side, you can get a closer experience of the waterfalls.

It doesn’t matter how you get to the entrance of the park (tour van, taxi or your own), private cars stay at the entrance. The entrance fee is 45 pesos (about US$12 as of Jun/2010). Beat the tour buses by arriving a bit before 9AM. Plan to stay until about 5:30PM (or break the visit in two days).

From the park entrance, you can take a small train to the Cataratas and then to the Garganta del Diablo (Devil’s Throat) station. A 1km walk (round-trip) on catwalk takes you to the top of the Devil’s Throat fall for an amazing experience. This takes about 1.5 hours.

From the Cataratas station, you get access to the “Upper Circuit” (about 1 hour), with the most panoramic views, and the “Lower Circuit” (about 1.5 hours) with close-to-the-water experiences.

I recommend taking the “Nautical Adventure” (a power boat that takes you very close – or under – the falls), boarding from the lower circuit. There are additional optional tours (jeep safari, other boat tours).

Power boats take you literally under the waterfalls

I would not expect a restaurant inside a park to be an attraction, but I really enjoyed the lunch break at the La Selva Restaurant, which offers an authentic Argentinian Parrilla experience (all you can eat beef on the grill) and an incredible value (45 pesos/person).

Argentinian Parrilla at the La Selva restaurant.

After visiting both sides of the Falls, optional tours from Foz do Iguaçú include shopping in Paraguay (very popular among Brazilians, but really not recommended for American visitors) and a tour of the Itaipu Hydroelectric plan (a gigantic facility, the world largest in energy production and the second in size to the Three Gorges).

Itaipu is still the world largest hydroelectric plant in energy production

If you plan to visit Foz do Iguaçú, feel free to contact me for additional pointers. If you are in Brazil, you can save some money by self-guiding and using cabs. If you are visiting from elsewhere and is not familiar with Brazil or with the language, I recommend using a local travel agency to provide the airport/hotel transfers and local tours.

We did use an agency and were very happy with it. Free Travel Brazil is a small family-run agency. They work with all Foz do Iguaçú Hotels and cover the Brazilian, Argentinian and Paraguayan vicinities. They balance the flexibility and friendliness of a small operation with the resources to organize groups and serve very specific needs.

Highly recommended: Contact Viviane Rak at

Climbing Mt. Shasta

(updated Jun 2017)

I have been to Mt. Shasta some 20 times and summited it 10 times (plus I’ve stopped right below the summit a few times for safety reasons). My first climb was in Sep 1994 and the most recent was in June 2016. I’ve led several groups with no climbing experience safely to the summit.

Shasta is home to most of my mountaineering experience, but I have hiked up Mt. Whitney (the highest point in the continental US) twice, Half Dome in Yosemite a dozen times, Mt. Lassen in California, Mt. Kinabalu in Borneo, Trails on the Swiss Alps near Interlaken and other smaller hills around the world.

All information in this article is correct to my knowledge, but it is for you to use it at your own risk. If you are planning to go there and have questions, feel free to contact me by leaving a comment below.

Aug 2004 Climb – My first as an expedition leader

Mt. Shasta is a beautiful volcano in Northern California that rises to about 14,179 feet (4,322 m) and its summit is within a couple of hundred feet from Whitney, the highest in the continental US. It stands alone and more than 10,000 ft above the surrounding terrain, it is an amazing view.

Climbing Shasta doesn’t require any more than being fit and some basic equipment, but it is not a casual project. One should not try to do it without a knowledgeable guide. Train by climbing a local hill with a 30 lb backpack for a few hours. If you wake up next day and feel nothing, you are ready.

A typical first climb will take place during summer (best time ranges from late May to early August, depending on snowfall during the previous winter) and take 2-3 days. The easiest route is on the South slope of the mountain (Avalanche Gulch).

Day 1: Drive to Mt. Shasta City, get a motel room and get a good night of sleep (alternative: drive to Bunny Flat, hike for about 1 hour and spend the night at Horse Camp).

Day 2:  Drive to Bunny Flat (about 8,000 ft). Get a self-issued permit, collect a few human waste kits, gear up and start climbing before mid-morning and set camp at Helen Lake (10,000 ft) by mid-afternoon. Study the route, melt snow, cook, and sleep early.

Day 3: Start early (preferably by 4AM) while snow is still firm, make it to Red Banks before sunrise, and summit by mid-day. Turn back and glissade below Red Banks. You can either break camp and descend all the way or spend an extra night at Helen Lake.

Camping at Helen Lake – Jun 2005
Summit of Shasta on a beautiful day -Jun 2005

To climb Shasta, you need a guide who knows the mountain (or someone with a lot of mountaineering experience). Check weather forecast and climb only if there are no chances of storms. You must be fit and well prepared to climb. People die on the mountain, so do not be foolish.

You will carry 4 liters of water (bottles can usually be filled at Horse Camp after Jun or so – 1 hour above Bunny Flats) and will need to collect, melt and purify snow at Lake Helen. There are several water purification methods, do some research. For North America, I carry a basic filter and then use chlorine tablets.

There is about a 50-50 chance you will get Acute Mountain Sickness, usually starting around 12,000ft (Red Banks-Misery Hill). Never leave someone with AMS alone. If symptoms are any more than mild headache, turn back and descend safely. Stay hydrated.

July 2008 – Summit Approach

Here is a time-tested equipment list for a summer South Face Avalanche Gulch climb, think twice before leaving anything behind or bringing any additional item. Your pack will weight 40-45 lbs. Gear will include mountaineering boots, crampons, ice axe, helmet, water purification and camping gear.

Personal Gear:

  • 1 long thermal bottom (no cotton)
  • 2 thermal tops (no cotton, short/long)
  • 1 mid-weight fleece jacket
  • 1 waterproof shell with hood (Goretex or equivalent)
  • 1 pair of waterproof pants (Goretex or equivalent)
  • 2 pairs of trekking socks (liners optional)
  • 1 pair of waterproof gloves (liners optional)
  • 1 pair of shorts (just so we don’t have to look at you in underwear)
  • 2 sets of underwear (preferably synthetic material)
  • 1 pair of crampon-compatible boots (part of mountaineering package)
  • 1 Ice axe with leash (part of mountaineering package)
  • 1 pair of crampons (part of mountaineering package)
  • 1 hat (for sun protection)
  • 1 mountaineering helmet (bike helmet works)
  • 1 pair of gaiters (optional in late summer)
  • 1 internal frame backpack (real 4000+ cu in – rated 75 liters or more is ideal)
  • 1 Summit pack (2000 cu in, any good pack will do it)
  • 4 straps (to secure sleeping pads, other accessories)
  • 1 sleeping bag (15F or better)
  • 1 foam sleeping pad (2 if you tend to feel cold)
  • 1 Sunglasses and/or goggles
  • 1 Headlamp with extra batteries
  • 4 Lexan 1-liter water bottles (at least one wide mouth)
  • 1 Plastic whistle for signaling and emergency
  • 1 Lexan spoon
  • Sunblock
  • Toilet paper in a handy ziploc bag
  • Medications that you need
  • 2 packs of day-time food (bars, nuts, jerky, cheese, etc)
  • 2 packs of freeze dried food (cook in bag for less mess)
  • 1 Plastic wristwatch with alarm
  • Toiletries, wipes, foot care (band-aid, moleskin, duct tape, body glide)
  • Nylon stuffing bags (to organize gear)
  • Ziploc, plastic bags (useful for food, garbage, clothing, protection)

Group Stuff:

  • 4-season tent (3-season can survive in late summer)
  • Metal stakes and rope to secure tent
  • Stove/White Gas/Safety Matches
  • Cookware to collect and boil water
  • First-aid Kit
  • Shovel (can be left behind in late summer)
  • Knife, Multi-tool
  • Water Purification (filter, iodine, chlorine)
  • Communication device (cell phone/radio)
  • Map/Compass/Altimeter/Binoculars
June 2016 – Probably my last time leading an expedition – we were the only group on the mountain that evening and had the sunset at Lake Helen all for ourselves (the tent you see in the background is the ranger’s tent, but they weren’t there that night). Our tent (a North Face Himalayan Hotel), has been to Shasta circa 1994 and it is still going.

Visiting Alaska (June 2008)

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I had for years wanted to visit Alaska and I finally did it in June of 2008. I arrived in Anchorage on the summer solstice. During that time of the year, it never gets completely dark and there is about 20 hours of sunlight. Practical travel season goes from late May to early Sep.

Amazing views and landscapes in Alaska

My original plan was to travel independently, but after some research I decided to join a guided tour with REI. I know, I know. Joining an organized tour was a first for me, but in the case of Alaska the trade-off between flexibility and efficiency is harder than usual, so I took the easier way.

For a 12-day trip, even with no-frills trip (camping, cheap eating) the cost will be more than a couple thousand dollars. It is possible to do the same with less money, but Alaska is expensive. If you want to save some $$ by going direct, the company that runs the tour for REI is Alaska Alpine Adventures – highly recommended.

Bald eagles and black bears are common views near Anchorage. Carrying a tripod and the long zoom lenses paid off in this shot of the eagle above our camp.

With the exception of a couple of lodging nights, we were camping. And rough camping it was (I was prepared for anything, but I was still surprised – 4 showers in 11 days). Positively surprised that is. It was a great experience and the only way to experience true Alaska is being very close to the ground.

Kayaking to the face of a glacier

The itinerary: Anchorage, drive to Prince William Sound, regular ferry trip to Cordova (a small fishing village), a floatplane ride to Valdez (a fishing village of Exxon Valdez fame), visit to the Matanuska Glacier, and a couple of days exploring Denali National Park. I think that is a good first-time-in-Alaska itinerary.

The activities: Lots of hiking, glacier crossing, ice climbing, kayaking (paddling to the face of a glacier is an unforgettable experience), river rafting. You will see lots of bears (including some close encounters) and bald eagles. In Denali, with some luck, you get to see moose, wolves, more bears, caribou, mountain sheep, etc.

Ice Climbing - Matanuska Glacier

I have lots of photos and stories. Here is one: I signed up for the trip as a “single”, which means they assigned a travel partner (to share a tent and other activities). When I met Ken in Anchorage, I was a bit worried as he looked a bit old for such “adventure” trip. We opened a couple of beers and were exchanging stories and he said “… that is where I was working when the war started…”.

What? You were working when the war started? Which war? He was 83 years old. Not particularly athletic, but extremely sharp and intelligent – and Republican (many of our late night debates around the fire were on politics). A great kayaking and ice climbing partner. He joined the group because his family would not let him hike Denali by himself.

An amazing  and inspiring guy. His secret: Never be afraid. Never stop.

Yes. I do plan to do Alaska-from-a-cruise-ship thing when I am older than Ken.

I hear such close view of a wolf is extremely rare. He is distracted eating a hare he had just caught.
Denali - not all visitors are lucky to be there in a clear day.
Endless days were topped with Alaskan beer and political debates around the campfire
Denali, the highest mountain in North America is so huge, it looks surreal in the horizon